The children's aid society recently launched a survey on discrimination in 18 countries, including China. Nearly 40 percent of adults worldwide said they suffered discrimination as a child because of factors such as gender, race or religious belief, disability or even residence. As a result, nearly half (49%) of adults reported that their right to education was adversely affected, while more than one third (35%) reported that they were unable to access key health and medical services.
The survey, which covered more than 18,000 people worldwide, was the largest of its kind and was the first ever to examine the impact of discrimination on survival and development.
In the context of growing global discrimination, the survey found that:
Happily, China is considered the best among the 18 countries surveyed to improve discrimination against children, with 73% of Chinese respondents pointing to improvements. At the same time, 56% of respondents worldwide pointed out that discrimination against children in their own countries had not been reduced in the past two decades. 36% of the respondents reported that discrimination had worsened.
The respondents in Africa reported the highest child discrimination rate (58%).
Nearly half of Asian respondents (45%) reported that they had been discriminated against in their childhood. In China, this figure is 44%.
These findings support the latest report of the Save the Children's Society, No Child Needs to Solve the Problem of Discrimination and Neglect against Children in the New Development Opportunities, which states that, despite some progress in supporting the most vulnerable children globally, groups that are discriminated against are at greatest risk. But they have been ignored so much that their future prospects are deteriorating. We call this group of children "forgotten children".
今天，救助儿童会发起的“一个都不能少”(Every Last Child)全球倡导活动，揭示并希望全球关注“被遗忘的儿童”因居住地区、性别或种族、残障状况或受武装冲突的迫害而遭受歧视的现实状况。
Today, the Every Last Child global initiative launched by Save the Children reveals and hopes that global attention will be paid to the reality of discrimination against "forgotten children" as a result of residence, gender or race, disability or persecution by armed conflict.
Patrick Watt, director of the Global Advocacy Program at Save the Children, said: "Our experience with projects in 120 countries around the world has taught us that discrimination is now becoming the greatest threat to the most vulnerable children. This is not a surprise, but because of discrimination or neglect, some of the most vulnerable children are denied access to critical medical services and education opportunities.
今天，救助儿童会宣布发起的2016-2018全球倡导活动 –“一个都不能少”(Every Last Child)，旨在确保1500万名儿童有同等的生存机会以及公平地获得卫生医疗和教育服务，不论他们的身份如何、居住在哪里。
Today, Save the Children announced the launch of a global initiative, Every Last Child, for the period 2016-2018, aimed at ensuring that 15 million children have equal opportunities for survival and fair access to health care and education, regardless of their status and where they live.
The initiative aims to call on family, community and local, national and international policymakers to work together to remove barriers to access to critical health services and education for the most vulnerable children.
In addition, Save the Children calls on global leaders to make three basic commitments, including equitable investment (to ensure sustainable funding for basic services such as health care and education), equal treatment for all children and ensuring the performance of policymakers.
According to the findings, millions of the world's most vulnerable children are denied access to critical health care and education because of their status or place of residence. The relevant data from different countries are listed below.
在印度比哈尔地区，低种姓占弱势人口的59%，仅有6%的儿童获得出生登记，而国内其他地区则有42%的儿童获得出生登记 – 这导致相关儿童因不具备出生证明而无法获得基本服务。
In Bihar, India, low caste accounts for 59% of the vulnerable population, only 6% of children are registered at birth, while 42% of children in other parts of the country are registered at birth - a result of which children are unable to obtain basic services because they do not have a birth certificate.
Although the problem of gender inequality has improved significantly globally, discrimination still exists in many areas, with adolescents and the most vulnerable girls most affected.
Violence against women and teenage pregnancies not only lead to increased maternal and infant mortality, but also limit girls'access to education.
Sierra Leone has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the world, which accounts for 40% of maternal deaths. In addition, pregnant girls are prohibited from going to school and taking examinations in Sierra Leone.
Child marriage is more common among the most disadvantaged girls in the world. In Tanzania, 61% of girls who had not received education were married before they were 18 years old.
Similarly, children with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to discrimination. They are three to four times more likely to suffer from physical violence, sexual violence or neglect.
In China, disabled children are one of the groups vulnerable to discrimination. It is very challenging for them to obtain and complete quality education. Data collected by China Disabled Persons Federation in 2008 show that about one third of disabled children do not complete nine-year compulsory education. 80% of the disabled children in China live in rural areas.
另外，武装冲突也造成了一批被边缘化的儿童群体 – 难民和流浪儿童。相比和平国家，出生在武装冲突地区的儿童的死亡率要高许多。平均而言，武装冲突地区的儿童在五岁生日以前死亡的比例比非武装冲突地区的儿童高出一倍。
In addition, armed conflicts have also caused a number of marginalized child groups - refugees and street children. Compared to peaceful countries, the mortality rate of children born in armed conflict areas is much higher. On average, the proportion of children dying before their fifth birthday in areas of armed conflict is twice as high as that in non-armed conflict areas.
However, discrimination and neglect are not unique to underdeveloped or developing countries, and children in economically developed countries also face discrimination and exclusion