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调研发现:四成受访者宣称儿时遭受过歧视 中国

救助儿童会近期在全球18个国家(包括中国)开展了一项有关歧视现象的调研。调研结果发现,全球将近40%的成年人表示,在儿时由于性别、种族或宗教信仰、残障状况甚至居住地区等因素,而遭受过歧视。据此,将近一半(49%)的成年人报告说,自己的受教育权利受到了不利影响,而超过三分之一(35%)的成年人报告说,自己无法获得关键的卫生、医疗服务。
 
The children's aid society recently launched a survey on discrimination in 18 countries, including China. Nearly 40 percent of adults worldwide said they suffered discrimination as a child because of factors such as gender, race or religious belief, disability or even residence. As a result, nearly half (49%) of adults reported that their right to education was adversely affected, while more than one third (35%) reported that they were unable to access key health and medical services.
 
 
 
这项调研覆盖全球超过18,000人,属于同类机构开展的调研活动中规模最大的一次,这也是有史以来第一次调研关于歧视对生存和发展的影响。
 
The survey, which covered more than 18,000 people worldwide, was the largest of its kind and was the first ever to examine the impact of discrimination on survival and development.
 
 
 
在全球歧视现象愈演愈烈的背景下,调研发现:
 
In the context of growing global discrimination, the survey found that:
 
 
 
·让人高兴的是,在所调研的18个国家中,中国在改善对儿童的歧视方面被认为做得最好,73%的中国调研对象指出情况有所改善。与此同时,全球范围内56%的调研对象指出:在过去二十年间,本国国内对于儿童的歧视没有减轻。36%的调研对象报告说歧视现象有所恶化。
 
Happily, China is considered the best among the 18 countries surveyed to improve discrimination against children, with 73% of Chinese respondents pointing to improvements. At the same time, 56% of respondents worldwide pointed out that discrimination against children in their own countries had not been reduced in the past two decades. 36% of the respondents reported that discrimination had worsened.
 
 
 
·非洲的调研对象报告了最高的儿童期受歧视比率(58%);
 
The respondents in Africa reported the highest child discrimination rate (58%).
 
 
 
·将近一半的亚洲调研对象(45%)报告说他们在童年遭受了歧视。在中国,这一数字为44%。
 
Nearly half of Asian respondents (45%) reported that they had been discriminated against in their childhood. In China, this figure is 44%.
 
 
 
上述调研结果支持了救助儿童会的另一份最新报告《一个都不能少,在新的发展契机下解决儿童遭受歧视和忽视的问题》,该报告指出:尽管全球在支持最弱势儿童方面取得了一定的进展,但是受歧视的群体面临的风险最大,但却持续被忽视,以至于他们的未来前景还在恶化。我们把这个群体的儿童称为“被遗忘的儿童”。
 
These findings support the latest report of the Save the Children's Society, No Child Needs to Solve the Problem of Discrimination and Neglect against Children in the New Development Opportunities, which states that, despite some progress in supporting the most vulnerable children globally, groups that are discriminated against are at greatest risk. But they have been ignored so much that their future prospects are deteriorating. We call this group of children "forgotten children".
 
 
 
今天,救助儿童会发起的“一个都不能少”(Every Last Child)全球倡导活动,揭示并希望全球关注“被遗忘的儿童”因居住地区、性别或种族、残障状况或受武装冲突的迫害而遭受歧视的现实状况。
 
Today, the Every Last Child global initiative launched by Save the Children reveals and hopes that global attention will be paid to the reality of discrimination against "forgotten children" as a result of residence, gender or race, disability or persecution by armed conflict.
 
 
 
救助儿童会全球倡导项目总监帕特里克·瓦特(Patrick Watt)指出:“我们在全球120个国家的项目工作经验让我们了解到,如今歧视逐渐成为最弱势儿童面临的最大威胁。这并非意外,而是因为遭受歧视或者忽略,导致某些最弱势儿童无法获得关键的医疗服务和教育机会。”
 
Patrick Watt, director of the Global Advocacy Program at Save the Children, said: "Our experience with projects in 120 countries around the world has taught us that discrimination is now becoming the greatest threat to the most vulnerable children. This is not a surprise, but because of discrimination or neglect, some of the most vulnerable children are denied access to critical medical services and education opportunities.
 
 
 
今天,救助儿童会宣布发起的2016-2018全球倡导活动 –“一个都不能少”(Every Last Child),旨在确保1500万名儿童有同等的生存机会以及公平地获得卫生医疗和教育服务,不论他们的身份如何、居住在哪里。
 
Today, Save the Children announced the launch of a global initiative, Every Last Child, for the period 2016-2018, aimed at ensuring that 15 million children have equal opportunities for survival and fair access to health care and education, regardless of their status and where they live.
 
 
 
该倡导活动旨在呼吁家庭、社区以及地方、国家和国际层面的政策制定者一起努力,消除那些阻碍最弱势儿童获取关键的医疗服务和教育机会的障碍。
 
The initiative aims to call on family, community and local, national and international policymakers to work together to remove barriers to access to critical health services and education for the most vulnerable children.
 
 
 
此外,救助儿童会呼吁全球领导人做出三项基本承诺,包括公平投入(以便确保医疗和教育等基本服务有可持续的经费来源)、所有儿童获得平等对待,以及确保决策者的履职。菲达国际
 
In addition, Save the Children calls on global leaders to make three basic commitments, including equitable investment (to ensure sustainable funding for basic services such as health care and education), equal treatment for all children and ensuring the performance of policymakers.
 
 
 
根据上述调研结果,全球数百万最弱势的儿童因其身份或居住地区而无法获得关键的医疗服务和教育机会。以下列举了不同国家的相关数据。
 
According to the findings, millions of the world's most vulnerable children are denied access to critical health care and education because of their status or place of residence. The relevant data from different countries are listed below.
 
 
 
在印度比哈尔地区,低种姓占弱势人口的59%,仅有6%的儿童获得出生登记,而国内其他地区则有42%的儿童获得出生登记 – 这导致相关儿童因不具备出生证明而无法获得基本服务。
 
In Bihar, India, low caste accounts for 59% of the vulnerable population, only 6% of children are registered at birth, while 42% of children in other parts of the country are registered at birth - a result of which children are unable to obtain basic services because they do not have a birth certificate.
 
 
 
虽然在全球范围来看,性别不平等问题已经有了显著改善,但是歧视在许多地区仍旧存在,受歧视问题影响最大的是青少年和最弱势的女孩。
 
Although the problem of gender inequality has improved significantly globally, discrimination still exists in many areas, with adolescents and the most vulnerable girls most affected.
 
 
 
针对女性的暴力和少女怀孕问题不仅导致妇婴死亡率的升高,而且限制了女孩的受教育机会。
 
Violence against women and teenage pregnancies not only lead to increased maternal and infant mortality, but also limit girls'access to education.
 
 
 
塞拉利昂的少女怀孕率居全球前列,该国少女占孕产妇死亡总数的40%。此外,怀孕少女在塞拉利昂是被禁止上学和参加考试的。
 
Sierra Leone has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the world, which accounts for 40% of maternal deaths. In addition, pregnant girls are prohibited from going to school and taking examinations in Sierra Leone.
 
 
 
童婚在全球最弱势的女孩当中比较多见。在坦桑尼亚,没有接受过教育的女孩当中,61%都在18岁以前就结婚了。
 
Child marriage is more common among the most disadvantaged girls in the world. In Tanzania, 61% of girls who had not received education were married before they were 18 years old.
 
 
 
同样,残障儿童尤其容易受到歧视。他们遭受肢体暴力、性暴力或忽视的机率是其他同龄人的三到四倍。
 
Similarly, children with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to discrimination. They are three to four times more likely to suffer from physical violence, sexual violence or neglect.
 
 
 
在中国,残障儿童是容易遭受歧视的群体之一,获得和完成优质教育对他们来说是非常有挑战的事情。中国残疾人联合会于2008年收集的数据表明,有大约三分之一的残障儿童没有完成九年制义务教育。中国80%的残障儿童生活在农村地区。
 
In China, disabled children are one of the groups vulnerable to discrimination. It is very challenging for them to obtain and complete quality education. Data collected by China Disabled Persons Federation in 2008 show that about one third of disabled children do not complete nine-year compulsory education. 80% of the disabled children in China live in rural areas.
 
 
 
另外,武装冲突也造成了一批被边缘化的儿童群体 – 难民和流浪儿童。相比和平国家,出生在武装冲突地区的儿童的死亡率要高许多。平均而言,武装冲突地区的儿童在五岁生日以前死亡的比例比非武装冲突地区的儿童高出一倍。
 
In addition, armed conflicts have also caused a number of marginalized child groups - refugees and street children. Compared to peaceful countries, the mortality rate of children born in armed conflict areas is much higher. On average, the proportion of children dying before their fifth birthday in areas of armed conflict is twice as high as that in non-armed conflict areas.
 
 
然而,被歧视和忽视并不是不发达或发展中国家的特有现象,在经济发达国家的儿童也面临着歧视和排斥。
 
However, discrimination and neglect are not unique to underdeveloped or developing countries, and children in economically developed countries also face discrimination and exclusion

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